Partial intravenous anaesthesia in the horse: a review of intravenous agents used to supplement equine inhalation anaesthesia. Part 1: lidocaine and ketamine

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To review the literature with regard to the use of different intravenous agents as supplements to inhalational anaesthesia in horses. These drugs include lidocaine, ketamine, opioids and α2-agonists. The Part 1 of this review will focus in the use of lidocaine and ketamine.

Databases used

Pubmed & Web of Science. Search terms: horse, inhalant anaesthesia, balanced anaesthesia, partial intravenous anaesthesia, lidocaine, ketamine.


Different drugs and their combinations can be administered systemically in anaesthetized horses, with the aim of reducing the amount of the volatile agent whilst improving the recovery qualities and providing a multimodal analgesic approach. However, full studies as to whether these techniques improve cardiopulmonary status are not always available and potential disadvantages should also be considered.

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