B-cell lymphoma with plasmacytoid differentiation, atypical cytoplasmic inclusions, and secondary leukemia in a dog

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Abstract

A 7-year-old male castrated Jack Russell Terrier was presented to the oncology service at the University of California–Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for evaluation of suspected lymphoma. The dog had several enlarged lymph nodes and moderate lymphocytosis. Aspirates of an enlarged inguinal lymph node contained a bimorphic population of large immature lymphocytes and smaller cells with plasmacytoid features. Both cell types often contained a single large cytoplasmic inclusion that varied from clear to pale pink to sky blue. Cytologic changes were interpreted as most consistent with lymphoid neoplasia. Based on the predominantly mature cell morphology and some morphologic heterogeneity, the peripheral lymphocytosis was interpreted as most likely reactive in nature. However, the immunophenotype of the cells (CD20+, CD21+, CD79a+, MUM-1+, and MHCII+) and clonality assays showed that tissue and blood lymphocytes were neoplastic B cells with clonal identity despite their different morphologic appearances. The cytoplasmic inclusions were positive with periodic acid-Schiff and were immunoreactive for IgM and IgG. By transmission electron microscopy, inclusions consisted of aberrant rough endoplasmic reticulum; a few small Russell bodies were also noted. A final diagnosis of high-grade B-cell lymphoma with plasmacytoid differentiation, atypical cytoplasmic inclusions, and secondary leukemia was made. Chemotherapy was initiated, but the dog was euthanized due to severe and uncontrolled seizures 9 months after the initial diagnosis. This case extends the morphologic repertoire of canine plasmacytoid neoplasms and emphasizes their continuum with multicentric lymphoma. This case also demonstrates the need for advanced diagnostic techniques in establishing blood involvement in lymphoma in some instances.

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