An 11-year-old, castrated male, Domestic Medium Hair cat was presented to the University of Florida Small Animal Hospital with a 2-week history of upper respiratory infection and increased serum globulins, as reported by the referring veterinarian. Physical examination was unremarkable other than melanosis of the left iris, with no evidence of ocular, nasal, or respiratory disease. Laboratory abnormalities included moderate nonregenerative anemia, mild leukopenia, mild hyperfibrinogenemia, severe hyperglobulinemia, mild hypoalbuminemia, and hypocholesterolemia. Abdominal radiographs and ultrasonographic examination revealed mild splenomegaly with no other abnormalities. Thoracic radiographs revealed no abnormalities. Cytologic evaluation of fine-needle aspirates from the spleen, liver, and bone marrow revealed numerous plasma cells and many vacuolated macrophages exhibiting marked phagocytosis of mature erythrocytes and platelets, occasionally metarubricytes and leukocytes, and rarely plasma cells. The cytologic interpretation was multiple myeloma and associated hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS). Serum protein electrophoresis revealed a monoclonal gammopathy, providing further evidence for a multiple myeloma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of HPS secondary to neoplasia in a cat.