Transient cold agglutinins associated withMycoplasma cynospneumonia in a dog

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This report details a case of reversible cold agglutinins in a dog with Mycoplasma cynos pneumonia. An 11-month-old female spayed Rhodesian Ridgeback was presented for lethargy and cough. Thoracic radiographs revealed an alveolar pattern present bilaterally in the cranioventral lung lobes. Septic neutrophilic inflammation with suspected Mycoplasma sp. organisms was noted on cytologic examination of a trans-tracheal wash, and the dog was treated empirically with IV ampicillin/sulbactam and enrofloxacin pending culture results. Red blood cell agglutination was noted unexpectedly on several blood film reviews during hospitalization; however, the dog never developed clinical or laboratory evidence of hemolysis. Cold agglutinins were demonstrated based on the results of a saline dilution and cold agglutinin test that showed agglutination at 4°C but not at room temperature (21°C) or 37°C. Based on a positive culture for M cynos, the dog was treated for 8 weeks with oral enrofloxacin. After clinical and radiographic resolution of the pneumonia, repeated saline dilution and cold agglutinin tests of peripheral blood were negative at all temperatures. Reversible, asymptomatic cold agglutinins are common in human patients with mycoplasma pneumonia, but this is the first reported case in a dog.

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