Determination of liver and muscle aflatoxin B1 residues and select serum chemistry variables during chronic aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens

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Abstract

Background

Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of the fungus Aspergillus sp. The presence of aflatoxin in poultry feeds results in direct toxicity and economic losses, and human health hazards after consumption of contaminated liver and meat.

Objectives

The study was conducted to assess tissue residues of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), and alterations in select clinical chemistry variables in serum during chronic aflatoxicosis in broiler chicks fed different dietary levels of AFB1.

Materials and Methods

Six groups of broiler chickens were fed diets containing between 0 and 800 ppb of AFB1 for 28 days. Groups of birds were terminated on days 0, 5, 13, 15, 20, and 28, and AFB1 levels were determined by HPLC in liver and muscle. Serum activities of ALT and ALP, and total protein and albumin concentrations were determined.

Results

No AFB1 residues were detected in liver after 50 ppb AFB1, and muscle after 50 and 100 ppb AFB1 feeding. Residues above the permissible threshold (> 2.0 ng/g) were only detected in liver tissues of groups fed 400 ppb and 800 ppb AFB1 in feed. The ALT and ALP activities in treated groups were significantly higher, and total protein and albumin concentrations were significantly lower in all treated groups compared to controls.

Conclusions

Continuous feeding of AFB1 to broiler chicken at levels of 50 and 100 ppb for 28 days did not reveal measurable AFB1 residues in muscle tissues. Serum values of ALT, ALP, total protein, and albumin may serve as markers for chronic aflatoxicosis in affected poultry.

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