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Owing to the development of Greyhounds as racing sighthounds, these dogs have acquired unique physiologic adaptations that distinguish them from other breeds. Reference intervals for many analytes in retired racing Greyhounds (RRGs) differ from those of other breeds; most of the hematologic differences have also been described in other sighthounds. In this review, we provide a survey of the literature on clinical pathology of Greyhounds and other sighthounds and results of laboratory testing, including analysis of CBCs, biochemical profiles, coagulation tests, and blood gases, in RRGs at The Ohio State University. Major clinicopathologic differences in this breed include higher RBC mass, creatinine concentration, glomerular filtration rate, activities of hepatic enzymes, and concentration of cardiac troponin, as well as lower WBC, neutrophil, and platelet counts, thromboelastographic values, and concentrations of serum haptoglobin, total globulins, and T4.