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Dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1 is the most important RBC antigen clinically, as it is highly immunogenic and causes acute hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTR) in sensitized dogs.The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of DEA 1.1 expression in 4 Turkish dog breeds, and to estimate the potential risk of HTR when blood from a DEA 1.1-positive donor is administered to a DEA 1.1-negative recipient following sensitization by a prior mismatched transfusion.EDTA blood samples (n = 178) were typed for DEA 1.1 using a commercial gel-column agglutination test (ID-Gel-Test Canine DEA 1.1). Probabilities of sensitization and risk of an HTR were calculated.The frequency of positivity for DEA 1.1 among Kars (n = 59), Kangal (n = 53), Akbash (n = 50), and Catalburun (n = 16) breeds was 71.2%, 67.9%, 60.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. Potential risk for occurrence of an HTR after administration of blood from a dog of the same breed ranged from 12.5% to 14.8%, whereas HTR induced by blood of a dog from a different breed ranged from 7.2% to 25.3%.The frequency of DEA 1.1-positive dogs among 4 Turkish breeds is high compared with that of most other breeds previously surveyed. The predicted risk of both sensitization and occurrence of DEA 1.1-related HTR following transfusion between dogs of either the same or different Turkish breeds was considerable. Although few dogs are transfused ≥4 days after the first transfusion, we recommend that (1) all donors and recipients be typed for DEA 1.1, (2) DEA 1.1-negative recipients receive only DEA 1.1-negative blood, and (3) blood be cross-matched prior to transfusing any dog ≥4 days after the first transfusion. These guidelines are also applicable to other breeds and countries.