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Intravenous fluid therapy is an important part of critical patient care. Therefore, it is important to understand the specific challenges of providing intravenous fluids to horses and their special electrolyte requirements. This article reviews the essentials of equine intravenous fluid therapy, including the fluid electrolyte compositions for treating horses and foals with specific conditions. Also provided are dose rates and formulations for tailoring intravenous fluids to specific purposes.