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Eight Salmonella typhimurium (Copenhagen) and eight Salmonella dublin isolates from cattle were compared by their antibiotic resistance patterns, by their production of colicin, aerobactin, haemolysin and capsule, by their possession of transmissible R plasmids and the spvC gene, and by their ability to invade and replicate within cultured epithelial cells. The two groups differed in their antibiotic resistance profiles, with more of the host-adapted S. dublin isolates resistant to tetracycline than were the non-host-adapted S. typhimurium (Copenhagen) group, but more of the S. typhimurium (Copenhagen) isolates resistant to the other antibiotics tested. None of the isolates produced colicin, but all produced aerobactin. One isolate in each group was encapsulated. All of the S. typhimurium (Copenhagen) and S. dublin isolates contained plasmids, and all of them contained the spvC-homologous sequences. Four of the S. typhimurium (Copenhagen) isolates were able to transfer an R plasmid to a recipient organism by conjugation. One of the five S. dublin isolates, which showed resistance to some of the antibiotics tested, was able to transfer an R plasmid by conjugation. Both groups of isolates invaded cultured epithelial cells to a similar degree after 1 h, but the S. dublin isolates reached significantly higher levels within the cells than did S. typhimurium (Copenhagen) after 9 h. This ability may, in part, explain the association of S. dublin with more severe forms of salmonellosis and prolonged carrier states. Further study of the intracellular growth of these isolates seems warranted.