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Endometritis in mares is a common cause of infertility. Conventional treatments of the disease have mostly been unsuccessful, so new therapeutic alternatives need to be investigated. This study evaluated the uterine disposition and plasma pharmacokinetic behaviour of a commercial formulation of enrofloxacin (EFX) given by the intrauterine (i.u.) route (2.5 mg/kg) in healthy mares. In order to evaluate the uterine inflammatory response, an initial histopathological study assessing polymorphonuclear cell infiltration was carried out in 20 mares over a 14-day period after treatment. In a second study, 6 healthy adult mares were used for the pharmacokinetic study. Samples of uterine tissue and plasma were collected from 0 to 24 h after the i.u. treatment with 5% EFX solution. Samples were analysed by conventional microbiological assay using an EFX-sensitive strain of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). There was a moderate but statistically nonsignificant inflammatory response following i.u. administration of either the formulation or the vehicle alone. Pharmacokinetic analysis of the uterine concentrations of EFX showed a slow and sustained depletion, with EFX remaining at concentrations above the MIC for 24 h after treatment. The area under the concentration–time curve obtained for the uterus suggested that EFX and its metabolites are specifically retained in the uterus, which is the target tissue for bacterial colonization. Neither study provided any evidence of EFX toxicity. In conclusion, these results are encouraging and suggest that EFX may be a useful local treatment in mares with bacterial endometritis.