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Ovulation in the Bactrian camel depends upon ovulation-inducing factors in the seminal plasma. The present study was conducted to isolate and purify the bioactive fractions from the seminal plasma of these camels. The seminal plasma was fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, and six fractions were obtained. The bioactive potential of each fraction was estimated from its effect on rat pituitary tissue cultured in vitro and by the effect of an intramuscular injection of the fraction into female camels in vivo. Both the third fraction (F3) and the fifth fraction (F5) stimulated the release of LH in vitro and in vivo. In addition, female camels ovulated within 48 h after intramuscular injection of F3. However, neither F3 nor F5 had any significant effect on the secretion of FSH, either in vitro or in vivo. When F3 was further fractionated into four subfractions, the third subfraction (F3-3) still stimulated the in vitro release of LH, but not of FSH. An attempt to further purify the ovulation-inducing factors in F3-3 failed owing to the similarity of the molecular characters.