Comparative Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of Amoxycillin in Chickens after Intravenous, Intramuscular and Oral Administrations

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The pharmacokinetics and systemic bioavailability of amoxycillin were investigated in clinically healthy, broiler chickens (n = 10 per group) after single intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.), and oral administrations at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight. The plasma concentrations of amoxycillin were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the data were subjected to compartmental and non-compartmental kinetic analyses. Following single i.v. injection, all plasma amoxycillin data were described by a two compartment-open model. The elimination half-lives of amoxycillin were 1.07 h, 1.09 h and 1.13 h after single i.v., i.m. and oral administration, respectively. The total body clearance (ClB) of amoxycillin was 0.80 (L/h)/kg and the volume of distribution calculated as Vd(area)} was 1.12 L/kg, respectively after i.v. administration. Substantial differences in the resultant kinetic data were obtained by comparing the plasma concentration profiles after i.m. injection with that after oral administration. The systemic i.m. bioavailability of amoxycillin was higher (77.21%) than after oral (60.92%) dosing. In vitro, the mean plasma protein binding of amoxycillin amounted to 8.27%. Owing to high clearance of amoxycillin in birds in our study, a plasma level was maintained above 0.25 μg/ml for only 6 h after i.m. and oral routes of administration and consequently frequent dosing may be necessary daily.

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