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The aim was to study the relationship between the infection rate of Eperythrozoon suis and the status of the immune system. Four pigs with chronic eperythrozoonosis were divided into experimental and control groups. Immunosuppression of the experimental group was accomplished by injecting with high-dose glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) on 3 consecutive days. Microscopic examination of blood smears was performed to observe the change of infection rate after administration. The blood samples of each group were collected on day 7 after administration for half-nested PCR assay. The microscopic results showed that the infection rate of the experimental group rose distinctly by 40 h late and remained at 90% in the days following administration. No changes were observed in the control group. PCR results showed a single expected 250 bp fragment in each group, which validated the positive microscopic results. This study demonstrated the significant effect of dexamethasone (DEX) on Eperythrozoon infection.