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Increased frequency of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella isolated from humans over the last quarter century in the United States has led to concern about the contribution animal production systems have played in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella. In order to better understand the potential role of dairy cattle as a reservoir for antimicrobial resistant Salmonella, it is important to understand methods currently used to measure the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella from human and animal populations. This review describes the biology of Salmonella and antimicrobial resistance, methods used to monitor antimicrobial resistance, and studies that have measured the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella among human and dairy cattle populations in the U.S. Although the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella from healthy dairy cattle is low, similar trends in the prevalence of resistance among Salmonella from clinically ill human and dairy cattle populations were observed in the literature.