The Sensory Field and Repeatability of the Cutaneous Trunci Muscle Reflex of the Dog
Single Paracostal Approach to Thoracic Duct and Cisterna Chyli: Experimental Study and Case Series
Comparison and Description of Transdiaphragmatic and Abdominal Minimally Invasive Cisterna Chyli Ablation in Dogs
Occlusion of the Thoracic Duct Using Ultrasonically Activated Shears in Six Dogs
Comparison of pH, Lactate, and Glucose Analysis of Equine Synovial Fluid using a Portable Clinical Analyzer with a Bench-Top Blood Gas Analyzer
Peritoneal and Plasma d-lactate Concentrations in Horses with Colic
Reevaluation of the Effect of Phenylephrine on Resolution of Nephrosplenic Entrapment by the Rolling Procedure in 87 Horses
Radiographic Quantitative Assessment of Caudal Proximal Tibial Angulation in 100 Dogs with Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture
Effect of Tibial Tuberosity Advancement on the Contact Mechanics and the Alignment of the Patellofemoral and Femorotibial Joints
Perioperative Complications after Full-Thickness Gastrointestinal Surgery in Cats with Alimentary Lymphoma
Use of a Dacron Shape-Memory Intravascular Coil to Achieve Slow, Progressive Occlusion of the Jugular Vein in Dogs
Radial Artery Pseudoaneurysm in a Maine Coon Cat
Repair of a Bifid Nose Combined with a Cleft of the Primary Palate in a 1-Year-Old Dog
Perpendicular Pull-Out Force of Locking Versus Non-Locking Plates in Thin Cortical Bone Using a Canine Mandibular Ramus Model
Influence of a Resilient, Hard-Carbon Thin Film on Drilling Efficiency and Thermogenesis
Comparison of the Accuracy of Radiography and Ultrasonography for Detection of Articular Lesions in Horses
Use of a Suprapatellar Pouch Portal and Laparoscopic Cannula for Removal of Debris or Loose Fragments Following Arthroscopy of the Femoropatellar Joint of 168 Horses (245 Joints)
Effect of Experimentally Induced Synovitis on Amikacin Concentrations after Intravenous Regional Limb Perfusion
A Preliminary Study on the Effect of Manuka Honey on Second-Intention Healing of Contaminated Wounds on the Distal Aspect of the Forelimbs of Horses
Mandibular Fracture in Single-humped Camels
Comparison of Exercise vs. a Rolling Technique Under General Anesthesia for the Correction of Nephrosplenic Entrapment of the Large Colon in Horses: 97 Cases (2004-2010).
Equine Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Comparing the Sternum and the Ilium.
In Vitro Biomechanical Comparison of a Prototype 4.5 mm Narrow Locking Compression Plate Construct Versus a 4.5 mm Limited Contact Dynamic Compression Plate Construct for Arthrodesis of the Equine Proximal Interphalangeal Joint.
Hemilaminectomy and Vertebral Stabilization for the Thoracolumbar Intervertebral Disc Associated Vertebral Instability in 11 Dogs.
Thoracolumbar Intervertebral Disc Extrusion in French Bulldogs: The Dissimilarity from that of Miniature Dachshund and the Association with the Congenital Vertebral Anomalies.
Assessment of Postoperative Recovery, Time to Ambulation, Urinary and Fecal Incontinence in 831 Dogs with Thoracolumbar Intervertebral Disc Disease.
Assessment of Acetabular Cup Positioning Following Total Hip Replacement from a Lateral Radiographic Projection.
In Vitro Comparison of 7 Polydioxanone and 2 Polyglactin 910 for Closure of Ventral Midline and Right Ventral Paramedian Celiotomies in Horses.
Biomechanical Comparison of V-Loc and Biosyn Suture in Canine Incisional Gastropexies.
Does Preoperative Ionized Calcium or Parathyroid Hormone Concentrations Predict Hypocalcemia Following Parathyroidectomy in Dogs with Primary Hyperparathyroidism (17 Dogs)?
Cervical Wedge Resection for Treatment of Transluminal Cervical Adhesions and Subsequent Pyometra: 3 Clinical Cases.
Effect of Stifle Angle on the Magnitude of the Tibial Plateau Angle Measurement in Dogs with Intact and Transected Cranial Cruciate Ligament: Cadaveric Study.
Mechanical Evaluation of Roughened Screws in Equine Metacarpal Bone.
Synovial Fluid Concentrations of Bupivacaine Following Single Intra-Articular Injection in Canine Osteoarthritic Stifles.
Single-Use Versus Multiple-Use Instruments: Effect on Laparoscopic Skills Performance.
Effects of Intraperitoneal Administration of Bilirubin on Infarct Area and Left Ventricular Function in a Rat Model of Acute Coronary Occlusion.
Evaluation of Equine Compensation in Fifty-Five Clinical Cases of Lameness.
Effective Knockdown of Interleukin-1 β in Osteoarthritis-Prone Guinea Pig Chondrocytes Influences Gene Expression of Additional Mediators Implicated in Disease Pathogenesis.
Comparison of Bilateral Ovariectomy Versus Ovariohysterectomy for the Sterilization of Pot Bellied Pigs: 14 Cases.
The Effect of Short and Longer-Term Treatment with Manuka Honey Gel on Second Intention Healing of Wounds Contaminated with Feces and Non-Contaminated Wounds on the Distal Aspect of Equine Forelimbs.
The Effect of Prosthesis Tension, Position and Number on the Area of the Rima Glottidis in Normal Equine Laryngeal Specimens.
Effect of Local Anesthetic Deposition into Structures of the Equine Foot on Subsequent Magnetic Resonance Images.
Incidence of Trans-Cortical Tibial Fractures with Self-Tapping and Non-Self-Tapping Screws in a TPLO Model.
The Effects of Mixing Pharmaceuticals with Equine Stem Cells Prior to Treatment of Orthopedic Injuries in the Horse.
Stimulus-Dependent Release of Tissue-Regenerating Factors by Equine Platelets.
Retrospective Study of Orthopedic Infections in Equine Long Bone Fractures and Arthrodeses Treated by Internal Fixation: 96 Cases (2006-2010).
Correction of Rotational Deformity of the Pes with Plate Fixation in 5 Dogs.
Predictors of Outcome Following Development of Support Limb Laminitis in Horses with a Unilateral Lameness.
Does Method of Jejunocecostomy Affect Incidence of Complications or Survival in Horses?
In-Vivo and Ex-Vivo Effect of Meloxicam on Chondrocyte Metabolism in Osteoarthritic Canine Cartilage.
Effects of Serum and Autologous Conditioned Serum on Equine Articular Chondrocytes Treated with IL-1.
Incidence of Postoperative Sepsis in Equine Arthroscopy Without Antimicrobial Prophylaxis.
Novel Imaging Modality for In Vivo 3D Tracking of Equine Metacarpophalangeal Joint Kinematics: A Preliminary Study.
In Vitro Comparison of Construct Elongation Associated with the Lateral Circumfabellar Suture, TightRope CCL and SwiveLock Bone Anchor for Extracapsular Stabilization of the Cranial Cruciate Ligament-Deficient Stifle in Dogs.
Confounding Factors in Algometric Assessment of Mechanical Thresholds in Normal Dogs.
Complications and Biostatistics Associated with Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy 1,519 Cases.
Effect of Proximal Rotational Ulnar Osteotomy on Ex Vivo Elbow Contact Mechanics and Three-Dimensional Kinematics in Dogs.
The Use of a Percutaneously Controlled Hydraulic Occluder for the Treatment of Refractory Urinary Incontinence in 18 Female Dogs.
A Retrospective Analysis of Return to Function Following Colic Surgery in 195 Cases (2003-1010).
Stereolithography of Complex Angular & Rotational Deformities (Femoral Malunions) as an Aid in Surgical Planning and Treatment with Locking Plate Fixation in 3 Dogs.
Hand Assisted Laparoscopic Ovariectomy via Colpotomy in Standing Mares.
Foaling Rates and Factors Associated with Fetal Outcome After Colic Surgery in Pregnant Thoroughbred Mares in Central Kentucky.
Effects of Intra-Articular Tiludronate on Synovial Fluid Parameters and Joint Health in Horses.
Quantitative Analysis of the Intramedullary Arterial Supply of the Feline Tibia— Is There a Causal Relationship to Delayed and Nonunion Fracture Healing?
A Retrospective Evaluation of the Effect of Antibacterial-Impregnated Sutures on Surgical Site Infection and Inflammation in 283 TPLO Procedures.
Augmentation of Trauma Hardware in a Proximal Femoral Osteotomy Model — Pilot Study in Yucatan Miniature Pigs.
Critical Study of the Results of the Treatment of Appendicular Bone Neoplasias with Reimplantation of Autoclaved Autologous Bone Graft Associated with Platelet Rich Plasma in Limb Sparing Surgery in Dogs.
Maximum Length of Greater Omentum Pedicle Flap Through Subcutaneous Tunnel for Long Bones in Dogs.
Structural Analysis of Canine Medial Coronoid Disease by Micro CT: Radial Incisure Versus Tip Fragmentation.
Sliding Humeral Osteotomy: Reduction of Major Complication Rate to Zero and Clinical Outcome Equivalence With or Without Focal Coronoid Treatment.
Pantarsal Arthrodesis in Dogs: A Clinical Comparison of Dorsal vs. Medial Plate Techniques Without Coaptation.
Bi-Oblique Dynamic Proximal Ulnar Osteotomy: Surgical Technique, Computed Tomographic Assessment of Radio-Ulnar Congruency Over 12 Weeks and Clinical Outcome in 87 Dogs.
Development of an Inexpensive Method for Processing Platelet Rich Plasma in the Horse.
Grade III Cranial Horn Tears of the Equine Medial Meniscus Alter the Contact Forces on the Articular Surface of the Medial Tibial Condyle.
Long-Term Survival After Surgery for Epiploic Foramen Entrapment Compared with Other Strangulating Diseases of the Equine Small Intestine.
Long-Term Survival After Jejunocecostomy, Jejunojejunostomy and No Resection for Strangulating Diseases of the Equine Small Intestine.
Effect of Transection of Cranial Arm of Medial Glenohumeral Ligament for Shoulder Stability in Adult Beagles.
Prevalence of Pulmonary Metastases in Dogs with Mast Cell Tumors: Retrospective Study of 115 Cases Between 2005 and 2010.
Clinical Use of Computed Tomography and Surface Markers Assist Internal Fixation Within the Equine Hoof.
Physicochemical and Bioadhesive Surface Analysis of Hydrogen Peroxide Gas Plasma Sterilized Nylon and Polyethylene Lines Used for Stabilization of the Canine Stifle Joint.
Hip Dysplasia in Canine Small and Toy Breeds: Retrospective Study.
Mechanical Comparison of Median Sternotomy Closure in Dogs Using Polydioxanone and Wire Sutures.
Blinding Terminology in Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials in Dogs and Cats: A Retrospective Study of 195 Trials and a Prospective Study of Terminology Interpretation.
Ventral Decompression of Equine Cervical Spinal Canal for Treatment of Spinal Cord Compression.
Mucosal Injury and Inflammatory Cells in Response to Brief Ischemia and Reperfusion in the Equine Large Colon.
Effect of Articular Design on Mediolateral Constraint and Stability of Two Unlinked Canine Total Elbow Prostheses.
Three Dimensional Kinematics of the Normal Canine Elbow at the Walk and Trot.
Immobilization of Silver-Impregnated Polyelectrolyte Multilayers on a Biological Dressing (BiobraneTM) Reduces Infection in a Murine Wound Infection Model.
Retrospective Analysis of the Impact of Abdominal Surgery on Return to Function in Racing Thoroughbreds.
Correlation of Meniscal Injury with Long-Term Osteoarthritis Formation and Ground Reaction Forces in Dogs After Surgical Treatment of Cruciate Insufficiency.
Evaluation of Single-Session Tibial Tuberosity Advancement Procedure for the Treatment of Bilateral Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture in Dogs: 24 Dogs.
A Biomechanical Comparison of Three Femoral Fixation Sites Using the Hamstring Graft in Canine Cranial Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.
Prevalence and Risk Factors for Development of Malignant Neoplasia in Feline Renal Allograft Recipients Receiving Lifelong Cyclosporine Based Immunosuppression 1998-2010.
A Biomechanical Comparison of Three Linear-Circular Hybrid Fixator Constructs.
The Decompression and Fusion to Canine Caudal Cervical Spondylomyelopathy Using Custom-Made Titanium Implant.
Risk Factors for Dehiscence Following Colonic Resection and Anastomosis.
Treatment of Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head in Small Dogs with Cemented Micro Total Hip Replacement.
Inhibition of Prostaglandin E2 and Nitric Oxide Production in Canine Chondrocytes by Pentosan Polysulfate and N-Acetylglucosamine Combination Compared to Meloxicam.
Arthroscopic Anatomy of the Tarsal Collateral Ligaments in the Horse.
Biomechanical Algorithm to Quantify Forces from Equine Motion at the Saddle Position.
A Descriptive Study of the Equine Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Contrast Arthrography and Arthroscopy.
Flank Approach for Removing Enlarged, Diseased Ovaries in Standing Mares.
Hip Toggle Stabilization Using the TightRope® System in 9 Dogs.
The Effect of Position of the Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy on Patella Tendon Strain: In Vitro Cadaveric Study.
Use of Plain Radiography in the Surgical Management of Obstructive Urolithiasis in Small Ruminants: 25 Cases (2002-2010).
Isolation, Characterization and In Vitro Proliferation of Canine Bone Marrow, Adipose Tissue, Muscle, and Periosteum-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
The Relationship Between Synovial Fluid and Cartilage Chondroitin Sulphate 846 Epitope in a Model of Experimentally Induced Osteoarthritis in Horses Treated Intravenously with Pentosan Polysulphate, N-Acetylglucosamine and Sodium Hyaluronan.
Evaluation of a Combination of Pentosan Polysulphate, N-Acetylglucosamine and Sodium Hyaluronan Intravenously for Treatment of Horses with Experimentally Induced Osteoarthritis.
Comparison of Long-Term Force Plate Gait Analysis for Extracapsular Reconstruction and Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy in Dogs.
Clinical and Histopathological Prognostic Factors for Canine Osteosarcoma of the Flat and Irregular Bones.
Pilot Hole Size and Tapping Affects Insertion Torque and Axial Pullout Strength of 4.0 mm Cancellous Bone Screws.
Reliability of Photogrammetry to Perform Three-Dimensional (3D) Wound Assessments Compared to Standard 2D Photographic Techniques.
Use of Neurostimulation to Localize and Anesthetize the Brachial Plexus of Calves Undergoing Metacarpal Surgery.
Minimally Invasive Approach to the Spinal Canal for Treatment of Intervertebral Disc Herniation in Dogs.
In Vivo Application of Novel and Commercially Available Bioabsorbable Implants for Tibial Fixation of Cranial Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Grafts.
Efficacy of a Plant Extract (Brachystemma Calycinum D. Don) on the Pain-Related Disability in Dogs with Naturally Occurring Osteoarthritis.
Incidence and Distribution of Stress Fractures in Thoroughbred Flat Racehorses Training on Different Surfaces.
Clinical Evaluation of a Vanilloid Receptor Type 1 (TRPVL) Antagonist for Treatment of Osteoarthritis in Dogs.
Effect of Post-Arthroscopic Triamcinolone Acetonide Administration on Synovial Fluid and Serum Biomarkers in an Equine Metacarpophalangeal Osteochondral Injury Model.
Characterization of Stromal Cells from Equine Laminae In Vitro.
Effect of NSAIDs in Combination on the In Vitro Inhibition of Equine Cyclooxygenase Enzymes.
Optimization of White Blood Cell Concentration in Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) for the Treatment of Tendonitis.
Plantarolateral Plate Fixation for Management of Distal Tarsal Instability in 5 Horses.
Comparison of Inertial Sensor Based System and Traditional Lameness Exam.
The Role of Cellular Senescence in the Pathogenesis of Canine Osteoarthritis.
The Prevalence of Radiographic Abnormalities of Thoroughbred Horses in 2-Year-Old-in-Training Sales and Associations with Race Performance.
Osteochondral Injection of Human Adenoviral BMP-2 or BMP-6 for Bone and Cartilage Regeneration.
Evaluation of Canine Plasma Cortisol and C-Reactive Protein as Measures of Post-Surgical Stress and Tissue Trauma.
In Vitro Comparison of Proximal Ulnar Osteotomy and Distal Ulnar Osteotomy with Release of the Interosseous Ligament.
The Contribution of the Palmar Carpal Ligaments to Antebrachiocarpal Joint Stability.
Isometric Points in the Canine Stifle.
The Role of the Antebrachiocarpal Ligaments in the Prevention of Hyperextension of the Antebrachiocarpal Joint.
Fractures of the Radius and Ulna in the Dog: 73 Cases (2003-2010).
Scapulectomy for Primary Bone Tumors in 42 Dogs: A Veterinary Society of Surgical Oncology (VSSO) Retrospective Study.
Cardiovascular Effects of N-Butylscopolammonium Bromide and Xylazine in Horses.
Development of a Virtual Reality Simulator for Teaching Canine Arthroscopy.
Femoral Fracture Repair Using an Intramedullary Locking Nail in Newborn Calves: 25 Cases.
Comparison of Different Concurrent Imaging Modalities in Staging of Dogs with Appendicular Osteosarcoma.
Surgical Excision of the Equine Ceratohyoid Bone in Conscious Sedated Horses.
Standing Surgical Repair of Non-Displaced Metacarpal and Metatarsal Condylar Fractures in Thoroughbred Racehorses.
Cervical Abscessation in the Dog: A Retrospective Study.
Comparison of Transvaginal Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) and Laparoscopy for Elective Bilateral Ovariectomy in Standing Mares.
Comparison of Three Surgical Approaches for Fixation of Abomasal Displacements in Lactating Dairy Cattle (1999-2009).
Arthroscopic Approach and Intra-Articular Anatomy of the Stifle in South American Camelids.
In Vitro Studies of Clindamycin and Enrofloxacin Elution from Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate Beads.
In Vivo Effects of a Single Intra-Articular Injection of 2% Lidocaine or 0.5% Bupivacaine on Articular Cartilage of Normal Horses.
Evaluation of SURGIFLO® Hemostatic Matrix to Control Hemorrhage in an Acute Porcine Laparoscopic Liver Bleeding Model.
Comparing Accelerometer Placement and Validity of Accelerometer Use in Dogs Under Controlled Conditions.
Comparative Study of Three Imaging Methods for Diagnosing Thoracolumbar Disc Disease in Dogs.
Gait Analysis in Clinically Healthy Sheep at Two Different Age Groups.
Evaluation of Castor Oil-Based Polyurethane Membranes in Rat-Bone Marrow Cell Culture.
Safety and Efficacy of the Artificial Urethral Sphincter in 21 Dogs with Acquired or Congenital Urinary Incontinence.
The Effect of Blood Contamination on Equine Synovial Fluid Parameters.
Viscosupplementation with Carbomer in the Middle Carpal Joint of Four Horses.
Comparison of Closure Technique for Equine Pelvic Flexure Enterotomies with a TA-90 Stapling Device vs. Hand-Sewn Closure: An Ex-Vivo Study.
Influence of Plate-Bone Contact on Cyclically Loaded Locking Plate Failure.
Osseous Sequestration in Llamas and Alpacas: 36 Cases (1999-2010).
Laparoscopic-Assisted Ovariectomy Using a Bipolar Vessel Sealing Device.
Effect of Previous Splenectomy on Incidence of Canine Gastric Dilatation Volvulus.
Surgical Correction of Angular and Torsional Metatarsal Deformity with Cylindrical Osteotomy and Locking Compression Plates in an Angus Calf.
The Effect of Abaxial Retraction on Pelvic Geometry Following Pelvic Symphysiotomy.
Toxoplasma Gondii Infection in the Renal Transplant Recipient.
Long-Term Retrospective Study of 12 Heifers and 1 Bull with Sinonasal Cysts.
Progress Toward the Generation and Validation of Equine Induced Pluripotent Stem (IPS) Cells.
The Effect of Intralesional Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Bone Marrow Supernatant on Collagen Fibril Size in a Surgical Model of Equine Superficial Digital Tendonitis.
Suppression of Interleukins 6 and 8 and Macrophage Chemotactic Protein-1 Production By Avocado/Soybean Unsaponifiables, Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate Combination and NSAIDS in Activated Canine Chondrocytes.
Evaluation of Perioperative Gastroesophageal Reflux in Dogs with Brachycephalic Syndrome.
Epidural Idiopathic Sterile Pyogranulomatous Inflammation Causing Spinal Cord Compressive Injury in Four Dogs.
Hemi-Dorsal Laminectomy and Vertebral Stabilization for Treatment of Solitary Vertebral Plasmacytoma in a Dog.
In Vitro Load to Failure Biomechanical Comparison of a Novel Canine Non-Constrained Medial Compartmental Elbow Arthroplasty System vs. Normal Canine Thoracic Limbs.
Evaluation of Intra-Arterial and Intra-Venous Regional Limb Perfusion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Normal Equine Distal Limb Using Scintigraphy.
Morphological Comparison of the Middle Ear Between French Bulldogs and Non-Brachycephalic Dogs.
Pads Pressure Distribution in Pit Bulls with Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture.
Correlation Between Hip Joint Radiographic Classification and Kinetic Analysis in German Shepherd Dogs.
Correlation of Foot Balance and Deep Digital Flexor Tendon Lesion Location on MRI.
Polycationic Coating on Orthopedic Implants Inhibits Biofilm Formation in an Infected Ovine Tibial Osteotomy Model.
Effects of Sterilization and Friction on Polycationic Coated Orthopedic Implants In Vitro.
Determine the Pelvic Canal Diameter Ratio at Which Signs Related to a Stenotic Pelvic Canal Develop in Dogs and Cats. A Retrospective Review of 62 Cases (1998-2010).
Modified High Perineal Urethrostomy Technique for Treatment of Urethral Stricture in Goats.
Predictive Value of Radiographs, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry, Computed Tomography and Microcomputed Tomography to Determine Local Cancellous Bone Quality of the Proximal Femur.
In Vivo Osteoinductivity of Gelatin β -Tri-Calcium Phosphate Sponge Containing Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 on an Equine Third Metacarpal Bone Defect.
The Effect of Locking Compression Plate Position on Mechanical Stabilization of the Canine Radius with a Gap.
In Vivo Tracking of Injected Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using Technetium-99m.
CT Scan Base Determination of Optimal Atlantoaxial Ventral Screw in Miniature Breed.
Evaluation of the Stabilizing Function of the Canine Atlantoaxial Ligaments: A Biomechanical Study.
Evaluation of a Novel Pin-Sleeve and Ring System for Transfixation Casting in a Neonatal Calf Model.
Congenital Laryngeal Paralysis in the Alaskan Husky.
TPLO: Handling of the Muscle Envelope — To Elevate or Not?
Comparison of Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1, -2 and -3 Induced Chondrogenesis in Pre-Implant Stem Cell Cultures.
Distribution and Homing of Stem Cells After Intra-Articular Injection to Normal and Arthritic Joints.
Endovascular Treatment and/or Evaluation of Canine Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts: Short- and Long-Term Experience in 100 Dogs.
Biomechanical Evaluation of Medial Femoral Condylar Subchondral Bone Cysts and the Effects of Treatment with Internal Fixation.
Determination of the Mechanical Axis and Joint Orientation Lines in the Canine Humerus: A Radiographic Cadaveric Study.
Use of a Carrel Patch for Multiple Renal Arteries in Feline Renal Transplantation.
Delayed Gadolinium Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage Predicts Short-Term Outcome in Dogs Surgically Treated for a Fragmented Coronoid Process.
Adult Equine Mesenchymal Stromal Cells on Collagen Scaffolds for In Vitro Tissue Generation.
In Vitro Expansion Rates and Multi-Potential of Adult Canine Stifle Adipose, Synovium and Cranial Cruciate Ligament Multipotent Stromal Cells.