Measurement of Femoral and Tibial Joint Reference Angles and Pelvic Limb Alignment in Cats


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Abstract

Objective:To report pelvic limb joint reference angles, limb alignment, and mechanical axis deviation for the feline pelvic limb.Study Design:Cadaveric radiographic anatomic study.Animals:Skeletally mature, mixed breed cats (n = 50).Methods:Extended pelvic limb radiography was performed and images analyzed to determine femoral anatomic joint reference angles, femoral and tibial mechanical joint reference angles, tibiofemoral angle, metatarsotibial angle, mechanical axis-femur and mechanical axis-metatarsus angles, and mechanical axis deviation of the stifle and tarsus. Mean ± SD and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated.Results:Mean ± SD angles and 95% CI were: anatomic lateral proximal femoral (103.9° ± 3.8°; 103.1° − 104.6°), anatomic lateral distal femoral (93.8° ± 2.5°; 93.3° − 94.3°), mechanical lateral proximal femoral (100.5° ± 3.7°; 99.8° − 101.2°), mechanical lateral distal femoral (97.2° ± 2.2°; 96.7° − 97.6°), mechanical medial proximal tibial (88.0° ± 3.2°; 87.3° − 88.6°), mechanical medial distal tibial (107.6° ± 4.8°; 106.6° − 108.5°), mechanical tibiofemoral (7.4° varus ± 2.5°; 6.9° − 7.9°), mechanical metatarsotibial (6.0° valgus ± 3.5°; 5.3° − 6.7°); mechanical axis-femur (3.2° ± 1.4°; 2.9° − 3.5°) and mechanical axis-metatarsus (2.4° ± 2.0°; 1.7° − 2.1°). Mechanical axis deviation of the stifle and of the tarsus were 2.0% ± 0.9% (95% CI: 1.9–2.2) and 0.8% ± 1.0% (95% CI: 0.7–1.0), respectively.Conclusions:Mean pelvic limb joint reference and limb alignment angles can be used for diagnosing angular limb deformities of the feline pelvic limb and for planning corrective osteotomies in affected cats.

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