Canine cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifle biomechanics associated with extra-articular stabilization predicted using a computer model

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Objective:To evaluate lateral fabellotibial suture (LFTS) and TightRope CCL (TR) extra-articular stabilization biomechanics in the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient canine stifle joint during the stance phase of gait.Study design:Computer simulations.Animals:Healthy 33-kg Golden Retriever.Methods:LFTS and TR were implemented in a previously developed 3-D quasi-static rigid body CrCL-deficient canine pelvic limb computer model simulating the stance phase of gait. Ligament loads, relative tibial translation, and relative tibial rotation were determined and compared across the CrCL-intact, CrCL-deficient, and extra-articular stabilized stifle joints.Results:Compared to the CrCL-intact stifle, peak caudal cruciate and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) loads were increased in the LFTS-managed stifle, peak caudal cruciate and LCL loads were decreased in the TR-managed stifle, and peak medial collateral and patellar ligament (PL) loads were similar for both techniques. Compared to the CrCL-deficient stifle, peak caudal cruciate, lateral collateral, and medial collateral ligament loads decreased, and peak PL load was similar in the LFTS- and TR-managed stifle joints. Peak relative tibial translation decreased, and peak relative tibial rotation changed from internal rotation to external rotation in the LFTS- and TR-managed stifle joints compared to the CrCL-deficient stifle.Conclusion:Our computer model predicted controlled tibial translation, decreased cruciate and collateral ligament loads, and a change in femorotibial rotation from internal to external with LFTS and TR stifle management as compared to the CrCL-deficient stifle. This study demonstrates how computer modeling can be used to evaluate biomechanics of stifle stabilization surgical techniques.

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