Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy in Small Breed Dogs With High Tibial Plateau Angles Using a 4-Hole 1.9/2.5 mm Locking T-Plate

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To report clinical experiences with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) to address cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease in small breed dogs with high tibial plateau angles (TPA) using a specific 4-hole locking T-plate.

Study design:

Retrospective case series.


Small breed dogs (<15 kg) with high TPA (>30°): n = 19 (29 CCL ruptures).


TPLO was performed by standard technique using a 1.9/2.5 mm 4-hole locking T-plate. Preoperative, immediate postoperative, and 6–8 weeks postoperative TPA were measured from radiographs. Lameness was scored subjectively preoperatively and 6–8 weeks postoperatively. Mid to long term follow-up was by client telephone questionnaire (mean, 12.1 months after surgery).


Mean ± SD preoperative TPA was 37.0 ± 4.9°, immediate postoperative TPA, 6.4 ± 2.8° and 6–8 weeks postoperative TPA, 8.0 ± 4.9°. Postoperative complications occurred in 4 dogs (13.8%) all of which had been operated as single-session bilateral procedures. Three stifles had failure of a single screw and postoperative increase in TPA. Periprosthetic infection necessitated plate removal in 1 dog. Lameness scores by veterinary assessment reduced from mean 3.4/5 preoperatively to 0.4/5 at 6–8 weeks postoperatively. Mid to long-term follow-up revealed no lameness by owner assessment.


A 4-hole 1.9/2.5 mm locking T-plate may be used in the stabilization of unilateral TPLO in small breed dogs with high TPA.

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