Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Arterial Angiography for Transarterial Coil Placement in Anesthetized and Standing Horses

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To (1) describe ultrasound-guided percutaneous introduction of a transarterial angiographic catheter into the common carotid artery (CCA); (2) investigate the feasibility of using angiography of the carotid arteries in the guttural pouch region and assess transarterial coil (TAC) placement into the internal carotid artery (ICA).

Study Design

Experimental study.


Healthy Standardbred horses (n = 6), aged 5–8 years.


Six horses had ultrasound-guided percutaneous CCA catheterization and angiography under general anesthesia. Catheterization sites were ultrasonographically evaluated postoperatively. Ten weeks later using the same horses sedated and standing, the same procedure was combined with placement of a TAC in the ICA.


Agitated contrast ultrasonography confirmed successful catheterization of the CCA. Needle puncture and introducer-set penetration of the CCA were the main technical difficulties. Radiography and fluoroscopy confirmed successful angiography and TAC placement. Mild hematoma formation was recorded in 4 of 12 procedures.


Angiography and TCA placement in the ICA can be safely performed using a percutaneous approach to the CCA under ultrasound guidance, in standing or anesthetized horses. This approach might be used for TAC embolization procedure; however, technical difficulties and hematoma formation can impair the procedure.

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