Long Term Functional Outcome of Tibial Tuberosity Advancement vs. Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy and Extracapsular Repair in a Heterogeneous Population of Dogs

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To determine a long term function of tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) for treatment of ruptured cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) in dogs, and to compare this to the long term function of previously reported tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO), extracapsular reconstruction (ECR), and a population of normal dogs.

Study Design:

Prospective clinical trial.


Dogs with unilateral ruptured CCL treated with TTA (n = 14), TPLO (n = 15), and ECR (n = 23), and normal adult dogs (control, n = 80).

Materials and Methods:

Force plate gait analysis was performed at 1 time point for the normal control group and preoperatively, and at 2 and 8 weeks and 6 and 12 months postoperatively for the treatment groups. Using serial force plates, symmetry indices (SI) were calculated between the operated and unoperated pelvic limbs for peak vertical force (PVF), contact time (CT), and vertical impulse (VI). Ground reaction forces (GRF) of the treatment and control group were compared using a general linear model.


Walk SI for dogs with TTA were not significantly different from the control group at 12 months postoperatively. At the trot, neither TTA nor ECR achieved normal GRF. SI of the TPLO group were not different from the normal control group by 6–12 months postoperatively.


At the walk, TTA achieves normal function by 12 months; however, at the trot TTA is indistinguishable from ECR. TPLO resulted in operated limb function that was similar to the control population by 6–12 months postoperatively at the walk and the trot.

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