Preoperative Differential Diagnosis of Canine Adrenal Tumors Using Triple-Phase Helical Computed Tomography

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Abstract

Objective:

To characterize the computed tomography (CT) findings for canine adrenal tumors, including cortical adenoma, cortical adenocarcinoma, and pheochromocytoma, and to evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of preoperative triple-phase helical CT for differentiation of tumor types and surgical planning.

Study Design:

Retrospective study.

Animals:

Dogs with adrenal tumors (n=36).

Methods:

All dogs underwent triple-phase helical CT, followed by adrenalectomy and histopathological diagnosis of the resected mass. Precontrast images, arterial, venous, and delayed phase images were obtained. In all cases, morphological characteristics and CT values and calculations, including the percentage enhancement washout ratio, relative percentage washout, enhancement washin, and enhancement washout, were analyzed and compared among the tumor types.

Results:

Of the 36 dogs with adrenal masses, cortical adenocarcinoma was most commonly diagnosed (16 dogs), followed by pheochromocytoma (13 dogs), and cortical adenoma (7 dogs). The precontrast minimum CT value and enhancement washout between venous and delayed phases in the cortical adenoma were significantly higher than those in the cortical adenocarcinoma. The maximum CT values of the precontrast image and arterial and venous phases, the enhancement washin and washouts, percentage enhancement washout ratio, and relative percentage washout in the pheochromocytomas were significantly higher than those in cortical adenocarcinoma.

Conclusion:

The differential diagnosis of canine adrenal tumors was feasible based on triple-phase CT findings, including morphological features, CT values, and intratumoral contrast attenuation. Preoperative diagnosis using triple-phase helical CT may be useful for surgical planning in dogs with adrenal tumors.

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