|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Adolescents face high rates of victimization, yet little is known regarding the criminal consequences of these experiences. Using data from the National Youth Survey, this investigation compared the relative and combined effects of adolescent violent victimization perpetrated by family and nonfamily members on self-reported criminal offending from adolescence to early adulthood. The results demonstrate that both types of violence have an immediate and sustained impact on criminal involvement, although the effect is somewhat stronger for nonfamily victimization, and for both types, the relationship tends to weaken over time. In addition, those experiencing both types of victimization report a higher frequency of offending compared to those experiencing only one type. The findings indicate the need for prevention programs aimed at decreasing the prevalence of adolescent victimization, as well as intervention efforts to help victims from becoming offenders.