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Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is associated with a wide range of mental and physical health problems, but little is known about the effect of IPV on cognitive decline. Previous research suggests an association between IPV victimization and cognitive dysfunction, but the few studies that have examined this phenomenon were cross-sectional in design and focused only on female victims of IPV. This study examined cognitive function over time among a diverse population of both male and female victims of IPV. Regression analyses indicated increased completion time on Trail Making Test (TMT) A for both male and female victims of IPV living below poverty as well as for female victims of IPV without previously depressive symptomatology. Results also indicated increased completion time on TMT B for male victims of IPV. Our findings support an association between IPV victimization and increased cognitive decline that is moderated by poverty status and previous depressive symptomatology.