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The aim of this study is to review clinical trial data on the newly approved protease inhibitors boceprevir and telaprevir to develop consensus recommendations on the optimal use of these agents for the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. An expert panel of seven leading authorities in viral hepatitis was convened to establish and disseminate a practical guide on best practices for incorporating boceprevir and telaprevir into therapy for HCV infection in both treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients. The topics covered include selecting candidates for boceprevir- or telaprevir-based treatments, predictors of response and early viral kinetics, response-guided therapy approaches, on-treatment management strategies to optimize the likelihood of response and minimize the risk of drug resistance, management of adverse effects during therapy and key considerations for special populations. The expert panel incorporated the best available clinical evidence into recommendations on how boceprevir and telaprevir should be used in the clinical setting. They indicated how treatment regimens may differ according to the baseline factors, such as presence of cirrhosis and when therapy may need to be modified or stopped altogether because of adverse events or poor virologic response. This practical guide will serve as a valuable resource for clinicians embarking on the new treatment paradigm of boceprevir or telaprevir in combination with peginterferon/ribavirin for chronic genotype 1 HCV infection.