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Addendum to: Mian MF, Pek EA, Chenoweth MC, Ashkar AA. Humanized mice are susceptible to Salmonella typhi infection. Cell Mol Immunol 2011, 8:83-87; PMID: 21200387; DOI: 10.1038/cmi.2010.52Salmonella entericaserovar Typhi(S. typhi),is a human restricted pathogen and the causal agent of typhoid fever. Although the use of antimicrobial drugs or vaccines has served as an effective therapeutics strategy against typhoid fever, the recent surge in multidrug-resistant strains ofS. typhipresents a major health concern worldwide. Progress on typhoid research has been limited in the past due to the lack of a suitable animal model that recapitulates the hallmark immunological features of human typhoid fever. We have recently developed a humanized immune system (HIS) mouse model that after intravenous challenge withS. typhidisplayed classical manifestations of human typhoid fever including meningitis, liver pathology and mortality. Concurrent to our studies, two other groups also have developed humanized mouse models ofS. typhiinfections employing different protocols. All these recently adopted animal models ofS. typhiinfections provide promise for a new era ofS. typhiresearch that may expedite detailed understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of this bacterial infection and investigations of new antimicrobials and vaccines for effective control.