Neural changes that result from disruption of normal visual experience during development are termed amblyopia. To characterize visual deficits specific to astigmatism-related amblyopia, we compared best-corrected visual performance in 330 astigmatic and 475 non-astigmatic kindergarten through 6th grade children. Astigmatism was associated with deficits in letter, grating and vernier acuity, high and middle spatial frequency contrast sensitivity, and stereoacuity. Although grating acuity, vernier acuity, and contrast sensitivity were reduced across stimulus orientation, astigmats demonstrated orientation-dependent deficits (meridional amblyopia) only for grating acuity. Astigmatic children are at risk for deficits across a range of visual functions.