Three-dimensional shape from second-order orientation flows

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In images of textured surfaces, orientation flows formed by perspective convergence invariably convey 3D shape. We show that orientation flows formed by contrast-modulated (CM) and illusory contours (IC) convey 3D shape, and that both stimulus types induce 3D shape aftereffects on CM and IC test stimuli. Adaptation to luminance-modulated (LM) orientation flows induce robust 3D shape aftereffects on CM and IC tests, however, aftereffects using CM/IC adapting stimuli on LM tests were substantially weaker. These results can be explained by the adaptation of 3D shape-selective neurons that invariantly extract first- and second-order orientation flows from striate and extra-striate signals, which receive stronger input from neurons selective for first-order orientation flows.

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