Callus formation and plant regeneration from immature and mature embryos of rye (Secale cerealeL.)

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SummaryAn efficient protocol was developed to regenerate entire plants from immature embryos of elite genotypes of rye as a prerequisite to plant transformation. Three winter genotypes and one spring genotype were tested using both immature and mature embryos as explants. Four types of callus initiation media and five kinds of regeneration media were tested in all possible combinations. Immature embryos gave much higher levels of plant regeneration than mature embryos, but mature embryos could be induced to regenerate plants for all genotypes and media tested, although at low levels. A minimum stage of embryo development must be reached before embryos can be cultured successfully. Genotypic effects were less pronounced than those reported for inbred cereal species such as wheat and barley, but there was an effect of genotype on percentage of callus formation. There was a significant interaction between genotype and initiation media. Composition of the initiation media affected both the percentage of callus formation from embryos and subsequent frequencies of plant regeneration. Composition of the regeneration media had no effect on level of plant regeneration. Immature embryos of all genotypes tested could be induced to produce 90-100% callus on appropriate initiation media and all regenerated shoots from approximately one-half to three-quarters of the calluses produced.

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