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We developed efficient genetic transformation protocols for two species of duckweed, Lemna gibba (G3) and Lemna minor (8627 and 8744), using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Partially differentiated nodules were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring a binary vector containing β-glucuronidase and nptII expression cassettes. Transformed cells were selected and allowed to grow into nodules in the presence of kanamycin. Transgenic duckweed fronds were regenerated from selected nodules. We demonstrated that transgenic duckweed could be regenerated within 3 mo. after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of nodules. Furthermore, we developed a method for transforming L. minor 8627 in 6 wk. These transformation protocols will facilitate genetic engineering of duckweed, ideal plants for bioremediation and large-scale industrial production of biomass and recombinant proteins.