Organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis from callus cultures inMuscari armeniacumLeichtl. ex Bak.


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Abstract

SummaryEstablishment of fast-growing, highly regenerable callus cultures was examined in Muscari armeniacum Leichtl. ex Bak. in order to develop an efficient genetic transformation system. High-frequency callus formation was obtained from leaf explants of cv. Blue Pearl on media containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram, PIC). Fast-growing, yellowish nodular callus lines and white friable callus lines containing a few somatic embryos were established on initiation medium supplemented with 4.5 μM 2,4-D and with 54 μM NAA, respectively. The yellowish nodular calluses vigorously produced shoot buds after transfer to media containing 0.44-44 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA), whereas the white friable calluses produced numerous somatic embryos upon transfer to plant growth regulator-free (PGR-F) medium. Histological observation of shoot buds and somatic embryos indicated that the former consisted of an apparent shoot meristem and several leaf primordia, and the latter had two distinct meristematic regions, corresponding to shoot and root meristems. Both shoot buds and somatic embryos developed into complete plantlets on PGR-F medium. Regenerated plants showed no observable morphological alterations. High proliferation and regeneration ability of these calluses, were maintained for over 2 yr.

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