Somatic embryogenesis in leaf callus from a matureQuercus suberL. Tree

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SummarySomatic embryos were obtained from a 60-yr-old Quercus suber L. tree. Leaf explants were cultivated on Murashige and Skoog medium with 30 gl−1 sucrose, 3 gl−1 gelrite, pH adjusted to 5.8, and different growth regulator combinations. Callus induction took place at 24±1°C in the dark during the first 3 wk. After 3 mo, calluses that showed embryogenic structures were transferred to the same medium without growth regulators. Somatic embryogenesis was only observed in calluses induced on E3 medium (supplemented with 4.5 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 9.0 μM zeatin). On average, 7.5% of the initial explants formed embryogenic calluses in this medium. Somatic embryo proliferation was high due to secondary embryogenesis. On average, 10% of the somatic embryos germinated and 40% of these germinated embryos converted into plants. Plants were elongated on the same medium without growth regulators and acclimated to greenhouse conditions.

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