Considerable progress has been accomplished in the cellular and molecular biology of Brassica species in the past few years. Plant regeneration has been increasingly optimized via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis using various explants; with tissue culture improvements focusing on factors such as age of the explant, genotype, and media additives. The production of haploids and doubled haploids using microspores has accelerated the production of homozygous lines in the Brassica species. Somatic cell fusion has facilitated the development of interspecific and intergeneric hybrids in the sexually incompatible species of Brassica. Crop improvement using somaclonal variation has also been achieved. The use of molecular markers in marker-assisted selection and breeding, transformation technology for the introduction of desirable traits, and a comparative analysis of these as well as their future prospects are important parts of the current research that is reviewed.