Shoot development and plant regeneration from protocorm-like bodies ofZygopetalum mackayi
Stem nodal segments of a sympodial orchid, Zygopetalum mackayi, were used as explants to induce protocorm-like body (PLB) formation on a hormone-free 1/2 Murashige and Skoog (1962) modified medium (1/2MS-0) or 1/2MS supplemented with 0.045–4.54 μM 1-phenyl-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl)-urea [TDZ] in light. After 1 mo of culture, pale to dark green, compact and irregular nodulars of PLBs formed from the explants. For PLB induction, TDZ had no significant effect on the percentage of PLB formation but promoted mean numbers of PLBs per responding explant at 0.045–4.54 μM. For plant conversion, PLBs were transferred onto the same basal medium devoid of TDZ. After 2–3 mo of culture, these PLBs successfully formed shoots and then roots with normal morphology. For PLB proliferation, TDZ has no significant effects on the fresh weight of PLB aggregates, but there is significantly retarded shoot development at 0.45–4.54 μM after 1 mo of culture. When transferring these PLB aggregates onto hormone-free medium for plant conversion, PLBs derived from TDZ-containing medium showed a decrease of shoot length (0.86–2.08 cm in shoot length) compared to those derived from 1/2MS-0 (2.74 cm in shoot length) after 1 mo of culture. Gibberellin A3 [GA3] at 0.29–8.66 μM significantly retarded PLB proliferation, but at 0.03 and 0.29 μM resulted in longer shoot length than the control treatment. Histological studies reveal that shoot development originated from the outer region of PLB aggregates. The young shoots initially connected to each other at their basal tissues with the parental PLBs. Plants were successfully obtained from PLBs and then gradually became more loosely connected with each other as well as with the parental aggregates. Several dozen plants were acclimatized in the greenhouse and showed normal morphology.