Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the most common cause of transfusion-related mortality and has been linked to the infusion of donor antibodies directed against recipient HLA class I antigens. We hypothesize that antibodies against HLA class I antigens bind to the antigens on the neutrophil (PMN) surface and induce priming and PMN cytotoxicity as the second event in a two-event in vitro model of PMN-mediated cytotoxicity.Methods
Isolated PMNs from HLA-A2 homozygotes, heterozygotes and null donors were incubated with a monoclonal antibody to HLA-A2 and a human polyclonal IgG to HLA-A2 and priming of the oxidase was measured. The monoclonal antibodies and PMNs from these three groups were then used in a two-event model of PMN cytotoxicity.Results
The antibodies to HLA-A2 both primed PMNs from HLA-A2 homozygotes but not from heterozygotes or nulls. Antibodies to HLA-A2 also served as the second event in a two-event model to induce PMN cytotoxicity of HLA-A2 homozygous PMNs.Conclusion
Antibodies to HLA class I antigens may directly prime/activate PMNs through the ligation of the antigen on the cell surface, and the antigen density appears to be important for these changes in PMN physiology.