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Fine structure of the atmospheric boundary layer in desert regions of Kalmykia and on dried bottom of the Aral Sea and its relation to soil particle emission in the atmosphere are discussed. It was found that in a hot season in the absence of dust storms convective processes lift up dust particles into the atmospheric boundary layer from sandy landscapes of Kalmykia and Sub-Aral regions. This aerosol consists of aggregate particles and contains a significant amount of long-living aerosol of size less than 5 μm (including fine-dispersion 0.01–0.1 μm aerosol). The increasing of fine aerosol concentration was found at air temperature above 25 °C, surface temperature above 50 °C, and relative humidity less than 40–50%. Some mechanisms influencing the particle emission rates are briefly considered.