Failure to limit dietary sodium leads to thirst, large fluid weight gain, and poor outcomes in patients receiving hemodialysis. Perceived benefits and barriers may influence adherence; however, tools measuring these relationships are not available. This study's purpose, based on the health belief model, was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Beliefs about Dietary Compliance Scale (BDCS), describe perceived benefits and barriers over time, and identify individual benefits and barriers that may be amenable to tailored interventions. A convenience sample of 229 completed the BDCS at baseline. One week after baseline, 52 participants completed the BDCS to assess test-retest reliability. Four months after baseline, 187 participants (81%) remained. Cronbach's alphas for the scale ranged from .66 to .81. One-week test-retest reliabilities ranged from .68 to .86. Factor structure was supported by factor analysis. Scores remained stable over time. Barriers to dietary sodium limitations were common and more in need of intervention.