The purpose of this study was to investigate injury incidence and factors associated with injury among employees at a large U.S. Army hospital to inform injury prevention planning and health promotion education efforts. Demographics, health behaviors, and injury history were collected by survey from hospital employees between October and December 2014. Descriptive statistics were reported and factors associated with injury were determined using multiple logistic regression. Respondents (380; 56% females, 44% males; 54% active duty military, 45% civilians) reported a prevalence of unhealthy behaviors (e.g., not enough exercise [58%] and poor sleeping habits [49%]). Nearly half of respondents (47%) reported at least one occupational injury in the past 12 months. Leading mechanisms of injuries were repetitive overuse (36%), falls (15%), and single twisting movement/overexertion (14%). Leading activities at the time of injury were physical training (24%), walking/hiking (15%), and lifting or moving objects (11%). Factors associated with injury included active duty military status, less education, tobacco use, overuse of alcohol or drugs, and stress. Health education efforts and materials intended for hospital staff should incorporate identified modifiable injury risk factors (e.g., alcohol and drug use, stress, tobacco use, poor sleep). Injury prevention initiatives should focus on physical training, walking/hiking, and lifting. Establishment of surveillance and routine review of employee injury, illness, and health behavior data are recommended to monitor program effects and collect data necessary to inform future prevention priorities and planning.