Optimized asset planning for minimizing latency in wireless sensor networks

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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has been attracting lots of interest in recent years. In such networks sensors data are collected over multi-hop routes at one or multiple base-stations (gateway nodes) for processing. In many WSN applications such as disaster management and combat field surveillance, rapid response to detected events is necessary and thus data latency should be minimal. Given the sensor's energy and radio range constraints, direct communication with the gateway is inefficient and often infeasible for most deployed sensors. An intuitive approach to limit data latency is to increase the population of gateways and place them in the vicinity of sensors. However, gateway nodes are typically costly and thus it is desired to limit their count. Therefore, there is a need to balance between such conflicting requirements. In this paper, we pursue an integrated approach to asset planning in WSNs so that the data latency is minimized. The goal is to determine the least number of gateways and identify where to place them in the network in order to achieve a certain delay bound on data delivery. We formulate an optimization model for the asset planning problem and present effective algorithms for solving it. The proposed solution scheme employs contemporary search heuristics such as k-means and genetic algorithms. Validation results confirm the effectiveness of our approach in achieving the desired design goals.

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