Different types of ionotropic P2X purinoceptors are expressed in all major types of neuroglia, where they mediate a variety of physiological and pathological signaling. Cortical astrocytes express specific P2X1/5 heteromeric receptors that are activated by ongoing synaptic transmission and can trigger fast local signaling through elevation in cytoplasmic Ca2+ and Na+ concentrations. Oligodendrocytes express several types of P2X receptors that may control their development and mediate axonal–glial interactions. In microglia, P2X4 and P2X7 receptors regulate numerous events associated with microglial activation, motility, and release of proinflammatory factors.WIREs Membr Transp Signal 2012, 1:151–161. doi: 10.1002/wmts.12
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