The fermentative production of rifamycin by Amycolatopsis mediterranei (MTCC17) has been studied. Both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the fermentation were determined by optimizing cultural conditions and medium design to improve the production of rifamycin. A pH value of 7.0, a temperature of 26 °C, an aeration rate of 250rev/min for a 50ml volume, a level of inoculum of 10% grown aeration for 48h and a fermentation period of 11days were found to be optimum. Among the nitrogen sources, and culture conditions, peanut meal and aeration were found to be critical for rifamycin production respectively. The above mentioned exercise increased the yields of rifamycin from 350mg/l to 2000mg/l.