Scleroglucan production by Sclerotium rolfsii ATCC 201126 has been studied using nitrate or ammonium as nitrogen sources at several concentrations. In all the experiments carried out, both growth and production were modelled by an unstructured kinetic model using logistic and Luedeking–Piret equations for describing growth and production, respectively. The kinetic parameters for growth (μ and YXN) and for production (α and β) were obtained by fitting the data to the model using the single-response non-linear regression technique by means of the algorithm of Marquardt coupled to a fourth-order Runge–Kutta algorithm. Biomass and scleroglucan production were higher when nitrate was the nitrogen source. Rheological properties of scleroglucan produced using nitrate as nitrogen source were studied and rheological parameters calculated, revealing similarity between this biopolymer and commercial scleroglucan.