In the parent strain of Nostoc muscorum, the percentage survival, nitrogenase activity and oxygenic photosynthesis were severely impaired by NaCl (ionic) and sucrose (non-ionic) stresses. Spontaneously occurring NaCl-Resistant mutant clones of the cyanobacterium N. muscorum were found to exhibit differential responses under ionic and non-ionic stresses. One of the mutants (NaCl-R) was found to show resistance in terms of percentage survival, nitrogenase activity and oxygenic photosynthesis under saline (ionic) as well as osmotic (non-ionic) stresses and showing compatible solute strategy for such adaptation. Another mutant (Na+-R) was found to show resistance only to salinity stress and showed an enhanced Na+-efflux system driven by H+. The Na+-R mutant differed from the NaCl-R mutant strain in the sense that it was sucrose sensitive.