An X-prolyl-dipeptidylaminopep tidase (Pep-XP) was purified from the crude intracellular extract of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NRRL 634 by ion exchange and gel filtration chromatographies. The enzyme was purified 80-fold with a recovery of 6%, and appeared as a single band with a molecular weight of about 80 kDa on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS-PAGE). The peptidase showed its maximal activity on arginyl-proline-p-nitroanilide at pH 7.0 and at a temperature of 45 °C, although there was a good activity of Pep-XP in the pH range of 5.5–7.0 and temperatures between 40 and 50 °C. The Michaelis constant (Km) and the maximum reaction velocity (Vmax) values were 0.92 mM and 7.9 U/mg protein min, respectively. The activity of Pep-XP was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride, an inhibitor of serine peptidases, and metal chelators had little effect on enzyme activity. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed synthetic substrates whose structure is X-Pro-Y like Lys-Pro-pNA, but did not hydrolyse Pro-pNA or azocasein, showing that the enzyme did not have aminopeptidase or endopeptidase activities.