The chemical composition of five aromatic plants (Mentha longifolia, M. pulegium, Eugenia caryophyllata, Thymus vulgaris and Rosmarinus officinalis) frequently used in food preparation in Tunisia was analysed by GC-MS. The antimicrobial effect of the essential oils obtained from these plants was tested against Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio fluvialis strains. Thyme oil exhibited a high level of antimicrobial activities against Vibrio spp. strains. The diameter of the zones of growth inhibition for V. parahaemolyticus species was interestingly high (ranging from 14.66 to 28 mm). The MIC and MBC values were interestingly low for thyme oil (MIC 0.078–0.156 mg/ml) and (MBC >0.31–1.25 mg/ml). These results showed that these plants especially thyme and clove, can be to be used for seafood preparation to protect against contamination by Vibriospp. strains.