To investigate the needs of parents of premature infants hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and explore associated factors. This study includes a convenience sample of 198 parents of premature infants hospitalized in a NICU in Chenzhou, Hunan province, China. Parents completed a study-specific questionnaire and the Chinese version of Critical Care Family Need Inventory (CCFNI). Analysis was conducted by multiple linear regression. Parents rated 30 of 45 items on the Chinese version of the CCFNI as important or very important. Items on the assurance, information, and proximity subscales were perceived as the most important, while items on the comfort subscale were the least important. Gender of parents and experience of visiting a NICU were significantly associated with the total needs of the parents. These insights should be used to inform clinical practice in the NICU.