Symptoms-Based Phenotypes Among Women With Dysmenorrhea: A Latent Class Analysis

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid


Dysmenorrhea is highly prevalent and may increase women’s risk for developing other chronic pain conditions. Although it is highly variable, symptom-based dysmenorrhea phenotypes have not been identified. The aims of the study were to identify symptom-based dysmenorrhea phenotypes and examine their relationships with demographic and clinical characteristics. In a cross-sectional study, 762 women with dysmenorrhea rated severity of 14 dysmenorrhea-related symptoms. Using latent class analysis, we identified three distinctive phenotypes. Women in the “mild localized pain” phenotype (n = 202, 26.51%) had mild abdominal cramps and dull abdominal pain/discomfort. Women in the “severe localized pain” phenotype (n = 412, 54.07%) had severe abdominal cramps. Women in the “multiple severe symptoms” phenotype (n = 148, 19.42%) had severe pain at multiple locations and multiple gastrointestinal symptoms. Race, ethnicity, age, and comorbid chronic pain conditions were significantly associated with phenotypes. Identification of these symptom-based phenotypes provides a foundation for research examining genotype–phenotype associations, etiologic mechanisms, and/or variability in treatment responses.

    loading  Loading Related Articles