The purposes of this study were to (a) compare sleep quality of persons with and without injection-related venous ulcers (VU) and (b) examine associations between global sleep quality with age, sex, comorbidities, pain, nutrition, physical health rating, fatigue, emotional problems, health-related quality of life, attitude toward physical activity, and number of ulcers.DESIGN:
This study used a cross-sectional design.SUBJECTS AND SETTING:
The participants included 31 patients with VU and 30 without VU (men [n = 35] and women; mean age = 54 years) who were attending an indigent clinic for wound care or general health.METHODS:
Participants were recruited from an urban clinic when they came for primary care or wound care. Questionnaires were administered at that time and included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Mini Nutrition Assessment, Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) questions about general physical health, fatigue, emotional problems, and quality of life, Brief Pain Inventory worst pain rating, Positive Attitude and Motivation for Physical Activity Scale, wound assessment, and demographic factors.RESULTS:
The 2 groups did not differ on the PSQI in terms of time going to bed, minutes to fall asleep, time awakening, hours slept, and time in bed. Those with VU compared to without VU took more medications to help sleep (P≤ .03). There were no significant differences in PSQI correlations across groups. All study variables except age, gender, and quality of life were significantly related to Global sleep disturbance score. A higher number of comorbid conditions, worse pain, poorer nutrition, poor physical health rating, greater fatigue, more emotional problems, and poor attitude toward physical activity were related to greater sleep disturbances for all participants. Both groups had mean Global PSQI scores greater than 5 (with VU = 7.83 and without VU = 8.2), indicating sleep problems.CONCLUSIONS:
Study findings suggest that sleep disturbances may be a concern in persons with VU and are related to many variables. Assessing sleep along with other aspects of wound care may provide a more comprehensive assessment of factors affecting a person with a VU.