The only untreatable subgroup of female infertility is absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI), which is due to congenital or surgical absence of a uterus or presence of a nonfunctional uterus. The solitary option for a woman with AUFI to become a biological mother today is through a gestational surrogate mother, a procedure that is prohibited in Sweden and large parts of the world. Uterus transplantation (UTx) is a potential future treatment of AUFI. After extensive animal research, also involving non-human primates, a small number of human UTx cases have recently been performed. Here, we summarize the primate UTx experiments that have paved the way for the human UTx cases, which are described and analyzed in more detail. We also estimate how many women of fertile age are affected by AUFI and describe the causes. The ethics around UTx is complex and is also addressed.