Collagen/oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC)/silver therapy has been designed to facilitate wound healing by normalizing the microenvironment and correcting biochemical imbalances in chronic wounds. The aim of this study was to compare collagen/ORC/silver therapy to control (standard treatment). Patients with diabetic foot ulcers were randomized to either collagen/ORC/silver (24) or control treatment (15). Wound area measurements and wound fluid samples were taken weekly. Protease levels were measured in wound fluid samples to investigate differences between responders (≥50% reduction in wound area by week 4) and nonresponders (<50% reduction in wound area by week 4). There were significantly more responders in the collagen/ORC/silver group compared with the control group (79% vs. 43%,p= 0.035). There were significantly fewer withdrawals from the study because of infection in the collagen/ORC/silver group compared with the control group (0% vs. 31%,p= 0.012). The sum of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and elastase concentration was higher in nonresponders compared with responders at baseline (p= 0.0705) and week 4 (p= 0.012). The results suggest that collagen/ORC/silver normalizes the wound microenvironment and protects against infection, resulting in improved wound healing. It was also demonstrated that measuring a combination of proteases may be a more relevant prognostic healing marker than any individual protease alone.