The intrasynovial flexor tendons of the hand are critical for normal hand function. Injury to these tendons can result in absent finger flexion, and a subsequent loss of overall hand function. The surgical techniques used to repair these tendons have improved in the past few decades, as have the postoperative rehabilitation protocols. In spite of these advances, intrasynovial flexor tendon repairs continue to be plagued by postoperative scar formation, which limits tendon gliding and prevents a full functional recovery. This paper describes the current challenges of flexor tendon repair, and evaluates the most recent advances and strategies for achieving an excellent functional outcome.